The technical calculation, between water availability and per capita water requirement is sufficient in East Timor Tengah Selatan Regency (TTS) of East Nusa Tenggara Province, but accessibility problem causing drought in some areas. This research was conducted in Kolbano and Kualin Subdistrict. TTS aims to prove the theory of Homer-Dixon and Gleick on resource-based conflicts. The results show that firstly, access for water resources does not cause inter-community conflict, and second, there is no major migration from rare areas of water in other areas. The underlying factor is the existence of cultural values that are still trusted and maintained, so as to create a social harmony. This empirical finding becomes an invention of a new theory from the development of the theory of Homer-Dixon and Gleick which states that the scarcity of natural resources / water causes conflict, but does not occur in the context of society in Kec. Kolbano and Kualin, and other areas in Kab. TTS.
Worldwide over the last 25-30 years human activity has changed the hydrological cycle of rivers and lakes and affects water quality. Water resources in different parts of the world not only experience a decrease in quantity due to climate change factors, but also polluted by various human economic activities.
Economic growth factors and population numbers challenge water resources problems in the future. The availability of water resources affects both the environment and human activities, including climate variability and changes, population growth can reduce per capita water availability, pollution can reduce water distribution, and others. The demand for water is not constant, but rather increases with population growth, and changes in social value (Shiklomanov 1993; Gleick 1998). On the other hand, water is not only important for sustainability, but has an important and integral role in support for ecosystems, development economic, human welfare, and cultural values (Sullivan 2002; Gleick 1998). Shiklomanov (1998), calculates that the total worldwide water withdrawal in 1995 was about 3,790 km3 / year and consumption of 2.070 km3 / year, or 61 % of withdrawals / exploration.
He estimates that withdrawals will increase by 10-12 percent every 10 years in the future (from 1995) to about 5,240 km3 / year by 2025. For consumption levels will increase by about 1.33 times by 2025 from 1995. In urban areas, the volume of water use depends on the size of the population, and increases over time (Shiklomanov 1998; Richter et al., 2013). Water use at the global level is increasing especially in big cities. The global population has doubled over the last 60 years, in 1950 less than a third of the population lives in urban areas, currently more than half the world’s population live in urban areas. Small towns have grown to big cities and big cities grow into metropolitan cities.
At the global level, urban water consumption has increased fivefold since 1950, reflecting not only the growing population but also the per capita water use across the country increasing (Mekonnen and Hoekstra 2011; Richter et al., 2013; FAO 2012). Shiklomanov (1998) points out that currently the use of water amounts to 300-600 liters per day per person. By the end of the century, water will increased to 500-1000 liters per day in developed countries in Europe, Asia, and North America. On the other hand, in developing countries, agricultural countries located in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, water use by the community is only 50-100 liters per day.