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Spatial Analysis and Geographical Distribution of Heavy Metal Contamination  in Urban House Water Reservoirs at Khamis Mushait City, Assir, Saudi Arabia

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To determine the most common heavy metals in the different water reservoirs used for drinking water supply in houses located at Khamis Mushait city, Saudi Arabia (see Map1 and; (Fig.1-6, Table 1,2), Maps 2-10).

To compare the results of the determined heavy metals with the standards set by Saudi Arabia Standards Organization and other international regulatory standards (Table 3).

The inter-element correlation between the results of heavy metals determined in the different drinking water reservoirs was also attempted (Table 4,5).

To Model Khamis city heavy metal contamination and to produce interpolation maps of heavy metal using (IDW method)


A total of 97 water samples collected from the house reservoirs at 4 main designed geo-localities (AX1-AX4). Water samples were prepared and analyzed for the examined heavy metals using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (SpectrAA 110/220 AGCU/PGCU Gas Control, part number 9910092800, Australia). Statistical analysis of the obtained results was done using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation on data using SPSS 10.0 for Windows for significant variations and inter-element relationship.


The obtained results indicated that, water from locality AX4 showed the highest mean Zn, Cu, Fe and Co, while AX1 was highly polluted with Pb. However, water from AX2 was the highest locality polluted with Cd. Ni was not detected in all examined water samples. It was revealed that Zn and Cu in all examined water were below the permissible limit set by Saudi and international standards, while there were water samples exceeding the permissible limit for Fe (9.28%), Pb (7.22) and Cd (42.27%). There were no significant variations of all examined heavy metals between fiberglass and steel reservoirs. There were positive correlations between Zn & Cu; Zn & Fe; Zn & Pb and Fe & Cu in the examined water from fiberglass reservoirs. From steel reservoirs, there were positive correlations between Zn & Fe; Cu & Fe and Cd & Pb. There was also a negative correlation between Cd & Co. 


House owners should be educated with water knowledge needed for sustainable use and management of their house water reservoirs. Periodical assessment of water quality in house reservoirs on routine basis is imperative and a sustainable management is required to reduce the contamination of drinking water quality and dismiss any health concern.

Finally, another study is ongoing by the research team to find out about the effects of heavy metals on the residents of these geo-localities and this will include hematological, immunological and biochemical parameters.

Related Publications

Preparing Urban Water Use Efficiency Plans - Lisa Maddaus, William Maddaus and Michelle Maddaus, Maddaus Water Management Inc. 
Publication Date: Nov 2013 - ISBN - 9781780405230

Water Footprinting in the Urban Water Sector - Kylie Hyde
 Publication Date: Feb 2013 - ISBN - 9781780404806

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