Pollutant Discharge per Capita (PDC)

Pollutant discharge per capita (PDC) is amount of pollutant discharged which is derived from municipal wastewater (1,5,6). PDC is the product of wastewater volume and concentration. PDC depends on areas and lifestyles (1,8). Pollutant generation per capita (PGC) is total pollutant generated per capita in households from daily lives. Pollutant load per capita (PLC) refers to wider indicators including inflow of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PLC can be applied for pollutant flowing into water body including coastal areas and lakes, which refers to pollutant load per capita flowing into water body (PLCwb) (1). There are natural purification effects in the river sections. PLCwb evaluates putting PDC and natural purification together (7). PGC, PDC and PLC sometimes refer to unit loading and unit load in English or gen-tan-i in Japanese.

Relationships between PDC and income indicators were found to be similar to environment Kuznets curve (EKC) (2,3,4). Relationship between PDC and purchase power based gross national income (PPP-GNI) were analysed using secondary data of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and World Bank data in the coastal areas of developing and middle-class countries, as well as relationship between PDC and water, sanitation and economic indicators (WSEIs) (2). Inverted U-shaped curve of EKC were found for relationship between PDC of biological oxygen demand (PDC-BOD) and total phosphorus (TP) with peaks at ca. US$ 5,050 and 11,200, respectively (3). PDC and income indicators in the areas of Lakes Shinji and Nakaumi, Japan, showed very significant EKC (4). Relationship between PDC and PPP-GNI per capita in Asia, Africa and Pacific countries was found to be similar to original Kuznets relationship between income and income equity (5).


1 Tsuzuki, Y.; An index directly indicates land-based pollutant load contributions of domestic wastewater to the water pollution and its application, Science of the Total Environment, 370, Issue 2-3, pp.425-440, 2006.

2 Tsuzuki, Y.; Relationships between water pollutant discharges per capita (PDCs) and indicators of economic level, water supply and sanitation in developing countries, Ecological Economics, Vol.68, pp.273–287, 2008.

3 Tsuzuki, Y.; Comparison of pollutant discharges per capita (PDC) and its relationships with economic development: An indicator for ambient water quality improvement as well as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) sanitation indicator, Ecological Indicators, Vol.9, pp.971-981, 2009.

4 Tsuzuki, Y.; Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationships between pollutant discharge per capita (PDC) of domestic wastewater and income indicators, Journal of Global Environment Engineering, JSCE, Vol.14, 37-46, 2009.
Article at the SSRN website: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1740285

5 Tsuzuki, Y., Koottatep, T., Wattanachira, S., Sarathai, Y. and Wongburana, C.; On-site treatment systems in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) service areas in Thailand: Scenario based pollutant loads estimation, Journal of Global Environment Engineering, Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), Vol.14, 57-65, 2009.
Article at the WSSCC website: http://www.wsscc.org/resources/resource-publications/site-treatment-systems-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-service

6 Tsuzuki, Y. and Koottatep, T.; Water pollutant discharge indicator estimation and water quality prediction in Pak Kret district, Bangkok, Thailand, Journal of Water and Environment Technology, Japan Society on Water Environment, 8 (1), 51-75, 2010.

7 Tsuzuki, Y., Fujii, M., Mochihara, Y., Matsuda, K. and Yoneda, M.: Natural purification effects in the river in consideration with domestic wastewater pollutant discharge reduction effects, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(6), 892–897, 2010.

8 Tsuzuki, Y., Koottatep, T., Jiawkok, S. and Saenpeng, S.; Municipal wastewater characteristics in Thailand and effects of "soft intervention" measures in households on pollutant discharge reduction, Water Science and Technology, 62 (2), 231-244, 2010.

References 4 and 5 published in Journal of Global Environment Engineering are found at the SSRN website (papers.ssrn.com) and WSSCC websites (www.wsscc.org).

Related Publications

Pharmaceuticals in the Environment - Benoit Roig
 Publication Date: Aug 2010 - ISBN - 9781843393146

Treatment of Micropollutants in Water and Wastewater - Jurate Virkutyte, Rajender S. Varma, Veeriah Jegatheesan 
Publication Date: Aug 2010 - ISBN - 9781843393160

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