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Ethiopia Overview

The amount of solid wastes generated in the city in descending order are domestic wastes, commercial wastes (solid wastes from market areas, from various trade activities including butcheries, hotels, grain mills and the like, shops and other related activities), industrial wastes and hospital wastes.The Chat trimmings that have been generated in the city are significant in quantity.The amount of solid waste generated can be estimated about 1.5 kg per person per day.The average amount of liquid waste collected and disposed from the city of Harar is about 24m3 per day.The municipality has 3 lifting trucks to collect transfer containers, 1 truck for refuse collection and 24 garbage collection containers of 8m3 capacity placed in different parts of the town.According to the information from Head of Health and Environment Sec­tion of the municipality, on average, the municipality manages to collect about 29,500m3 of solid waste in a year. Based on this performance, it has been estimated that about 57% of the daily generated solid waste is collected and dumped.The remaining significant amount of solid waste is disposed of along roads riversides, and near residential areas. In addition, according to house-to-house survey conducted by Harar Health Bureau and the 1994 and Housing Census, about 29% of the house units in the town do not have sanitation facilities. Inhabitants of this large number of the housing units usually defecate along riverbanks, in open spaces, along the roadsides, in other unauthorized areas.The problem is pronounced in Jegol where the settle­ment is highly congested, having a high density of population. Further the survey reveals the type of toilet facilities and number of households using these facilities.Accordingly, of the total sample households, about 7.9% of have flush toilets, 61.1% have pit latrines, and 28.7% have no toilet and the remaining 2.2% is not stated.

Based on the survey conducted by Harar Health Bureau (Hygiene, Sanitation & Environ­mental Section) in July 2003 out of the total 15,735 households, about 11,707 have toilets, while 4,027 do not have any type of toilet facilities.According to this survey, 25.6% of the households do not have sanitation facilities The study further reveals that out of the total 11,7097 toilet facilities, about 6,258 (53.50%) are owned privately, while the remaining 5,449 (46.50%) are shared.The following tables show distribution of the toilet facilities and number of households using these facilities.

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Based on the survey findings, the number of toilet facilities available in higher 01 that com­prises kebeles 01-07 is lower compared with the others, this might be due to lack of space to construct latrines because of crowded residential houses and densely populated old town of Jegol.The problem is further compounded as new development in this area is not allowed, to preserve the historical heritage and not disturb the existing settlement/layout pattern of the area.

As per the Regional Health Bureau survey findings, the sanitation facility of the town has slightly improved compared with the survey carried out by CSA in 1994. Considering that the data is recent, reflecting the current health facilities of the town, the consultant proposes using these data as a basis for projection the types of toilet facilities in the study

Selection of disposal practice

The municipality does not have an appropriate solid waste disposal site.The solid wastes are dumped in rural areas of the region. As the result, dwellers near these dumpsites have com­plained on the grounds of various environmental problems, including odours and an unpleas­ant environment.

In addition to these, about 200 communal dumpsites have been constructed in various parts of the city. Some of them often use the solid wastes as a fertilizer.There are also attempts to promote the use of incinerators in some organizations.With regard to hospital wastes, the existing Hospital in the region disposes of the wastes generated within their compound and, after a time, they bury it.

Decision Making

The solid and liquid waste management of the city is carried out by the municipality’s Social Services Department, urban sanitation and environmental protection team. So the decision concerning waste management is made by the municipality. However, existing manpower is not adequate to handle/manage the generated solid and liquid wastes in the city, which is about one sanitation worker per 200 dwellers.The institutional problem of the city with regard to solid and liquid waste management may be resolved after the implementation of the new in­stitutional arrangement, under which the unit is supposed to be elevated to a higher status, i.e., the Urban Sanitation and Environmental Protection Department within the Urban Sanitation, Environmental Protection and Beautification Authority.

Costs

There is no payment to dispose of the wastage or to use sludge because the municipality dis­poses outside the city as discussed above.

  • Charge to customers for treating one cubic metre of sewage – 150 Birr per truck.
  • Cost of 1000 litres of diesel fuel – 6.75 Birr per litter
  • Cost of one kilowatt hour of electricity – On average, 0.57 Birr/KWH

Most common use or disposal

We don’t have a waste treatment plant, and the current practice of dumping solid and liquid waste indiscriminately has health, environmental and social impacts that have to be addressed through proper investigation and design.Therefore, there is an immediate need to have desig­nated and well designed and managed disposal sites for solid and liquid waste. Further, the tech­nical and financial capacity of the municipality is not at such a status as to manage the waste being generated in various portions of the town. A shortage of trucks for transporting solid and liquid waste and the absence of properly prepared dislodging sites are the main problems of the town in solid and liquid waste management.

Agriculture

Actually, local farmers use excreta as a fertilizer without any preprocessing of the waste, so as a result, there is contamination

It is used for cereal plants by local farmers, but it is not done by the regional government or institutional level. It also depends on the access road to the farmland.

Land Reclamation

We don’t use it

Landfills

We don’t have landfills, the waste of the city is deposed in an open agricultural area

Laws and regulations

The Harari people National State Conservation Strategy (RCS) was prepared in 2002 in five volumes and it was approved by the Region Council.

The regional conservation strategy reports are comprehensive, detailing the resource basis; institutional policy and legal requirements for a sound environmental management.These doc­uments could be used extensively as a basis to develop different regulations, such as environ­mental pollution controls, environmental impact assessments, municipal solid waste manage­ment, environmental standards etc.Thus, the documents need to be updated regularly, which has not been carried so far, and which needs to be treated as a gap.The federal Hygiene and Environmental sanitation regulation has been endorsed and is in place and the region’s Hy­giene and Environmental sanitation was also prepared four years ago, but still has not been ratified.Although there is no networking and coordination among institutions, individuals and organizations of the region, some efforts on rapid assessment of the city waste management are being done.The French city, Charleville, crew assessment book,Tropics consultation report, students thesis writings are the case in point. Regarding the operation of the waste manage­ment of the city, the following could be cited among the various possible interventions.

  • The involvement of the municipality in the operational activity of the solid waste management.
  • The coalition of the municipality and the Harar water supply and sewerage authority for liquid waste management.
  • The promotion of the “donkey solution” as a local response for the problem of the city solid waste collection activities.
  • The introduction of fees for waste management activities of the city. Every household and institutions would be required to pay for the service it is getting.

Mechanical dewatering

We don’t require dewatering, because there is no waste treatment plant.

Stabilization and or Disinfection techniques

We don’t have any techniques

Hot Issues

The absence of clear policy and working guidelines, weak community awareness programs, insufficient follow-up and supervision, and low level capacity and consciousness of the small scale enterprise contribute to the existing weak private-public interactions.There is no NGO and private sector involvement in the waste management activity of the city.

Resources

The detailed country overview of Ethiopia is included in the Global Atlas of Excreta, Wastewater Sludge, and Biosolids Management.

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