Recent Papers on Cellular Automata

Content Table

Cellular-automata-based ecological and ecohydraulics modelling

Journal of Hydroinformatics Vol 11 No 3–4 pp 252–265 © IWA Publishing 2009 doi:10.2166/hydro.2009.026

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Qiuwen Chen, Fei Ye and Weifeng Li

Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Science, Shuangqing Road 18, Haidian District, Beijing 100085, China Tel.:/Fax: +86 10 6284 9311 E-mail:


Spatially lumped models may fail to take into account the effects of spatial heterogeneity and local interactions. These properties sometimes are crucial to the dynamics and evolutions of ecosystems. This paper started from the fundamental aspects of CA and focused on the development and application of the approach to ecological and ecohydraulics modelling. Application cases include modelling of prey–predator dynamics by stochastic CA and simulation of riparian vegetation successions in a regulated river by rule-based CA. The results indicated that spatially explicit paradigms such as cellular automata (CA) have a strong capability to bridge the local processes and global patterns.

A probabilistic cellular automaton for two dimensional contaminant transport simulation in ground water

Water Science & Technology—WST Vol 58 No 11 pp 2083–2092 © IWA Publishing 2008 doi:10.2166/wst.2008.824

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Jegathambal Palanichamy, Holger Schüttrumpf and Sundarambal Palani

Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 52056, E-mail:
 Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119223


In recent years evolutionary computing algorithms have been proposed to solve many engineering problems. Genetic algorithms, Neural Networks, and Cellular Automata are the branches of evolutionary computing techniques. In this study, it is proposed to simulate the contaminant transport in porous media using a Cellular Automaton. The physical processes and chemical reactions occurring in the ground water system are intricately connected at various scales of space, time, transport coefficients and molecular concentration. The validity of continuous approach for the simulation of chemical systems with low concentration of species and intracellular environments has become subtle. Due to the difference in scales of various processes that occur in the ground water system, the description of the system can be well defined in the intermediate scale called mesoscopic scale, which is in between microscopic and macroscopic description. Mesoscopic models provide the relationship between various parameters and their evolvement in time, thus establishing the contact between modeling at various scales at the interface. In this paper, a Probabilistic Cellular Automaton (PCA) model has been developed based on the transport and reaction probability values. The developed model was verified and validated for one, two dimensional transport systems and also for the simulation of BTEX transport in two dimensional system in ground water.

Two-dimensional cellular automaton model for mixed-culture biofilm

Water Science & Technology Vol 49 No 11-12 pp 193–198 © IWA Publishing 2004

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G.E. Pizarro*, C. Garcia**, R. Moreno*** and M. E. Sepulveda****

*Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Cat—lica de Chile, Casilla 306 Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (E-mail:
**Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Cat—lica de Chile, Casilla 306 Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (E-mail:
***Department of Computer Science, Pontificia Universidad Cat—lica de Chile, Casilla 306 Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (E-mail:
****Department of Computer Science, Pontificia Universidad Cat—lica de Chile, Casilla 306 Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (E-mail:


Structural and microbial heterogeneity occurs in almost any type of biofilm system. General approaches for the design of biofilm systems consider biofilms as homogeneous and of constant thickness. In order to improve the design of biofilms systems, models need to incorporate structural heterogeneity and the effect of inert microbial mass. We have improved a 2D biofilm model based on cellular automata (CA) and used it to simulate multidimensional biofilms with active and inert biomass including a self-organizing development. Results indicate that the presence of inert biomass within biofilm structures does not change considerably the substrate flux into the biofilm because the active biomass is located at the surface of the biofilm. Long-term simulations revealed that although the biofilm system is highly heterogeneous and the microstructure is continuously changing, the biofilm reaches a dynamic steady-state with prediction of biofilm thickness and substrate flux stabilizing on a delimited range.

A new model for anaerobic processes of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors based on cellular automata

Water Science & Technology Vol 45 No 10 pp 87–92 © IWA Publishing 2002

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I.V. Skiadas* and B.K. Ahring**

*Biocentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Building 227, DK-2800, Lyngby, Denmark ( E-mail:
**Biocentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Building 227, DK-2800, Lyngby, Denmark. School of Engineering and Applied Science, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UCLA, L.A., California, USA (E-mail:


The advantageous performance of the UASB reactors is due to the immobilisation of the active biomass, since bacteria coagulate forming aggregates usually called granules. Changes in organic loading rate, hydraulic loading rate or influent substrate composition usually result in changes in granule characteristics and lead to different reactor behaviour. A dynamic mathematical model has been developed for the anaerobic digestion of a glucose based synthetic wastewater in UASB reactors. Cellular automata (CA) theory has been applied to simulate the granule development process. The model takes into consideration that granule diameter and granule microbial composition are functions of the reactor operational parameters and is capable of predicting the UASB performance and the layer structure of the granules.

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