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[[Sanitation>>http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/Sanitation]] provision in eThekwini (South Africa’s third-largest city) is reasonably good by comparison with most cities in sub-Saharan Africa, in line with South Africa’s relatively high per-capita GNP: most people have access to a hygienic toilet, and most sewage is treated before discharge to the [[environment >>http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/Protecting+the+Environment]]inenvironment in a controlled manner. However, a significant minority of the city’s population (about 15%) still lacks adequate [[sanitation>>http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/Sanitation]]; these are mostly black Africans living in low-income townships and informal settlements. This article briefly summarizes the current [[sanitation>>http://Sanitation]]sanitation situation in eThekwini.
This page is part of the fully editable open-access reference source on the [[sanitation status of all major cities in sub-Saharan Africa>>/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/AfricanCitiesSanitationStatus]]. Africa>>http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/create/Articles/%2Fxwiki%2Fbin%2Fview%2FArticles%2FAfricanCitiesSanitationStatus?parent=Articles.14%29+DURBAN+THEKWINI+%28South+Africa%29+3]]. The resource considers the 40 urban agglomerations in sub-Saharan Africa with a current population of 1 million or more. To read some of the other 40 country profiles, go back to the resource [[Homepage>>/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/AfricanCitiesSanitationStatus]]. [[Homepage>>http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/create/Articles/%2Fxwiki%2Fbin%2Fview%2FArticles%2FAfricanCitiesSanitationStatus?parent=Articles.14%29+DURBAN+THEKWINI+%28South+Africa%29+3]].
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== Background information ==
eThekwini is an urban agglomeration with a population of about 3.6 million people (Brinkhoff 2010). It is a coastal city with hilly topography; note that extensive peri-urban districts of the municipality are semi-rural in character, with low population density (in other words, the municipality extends beyond the urban area; see map in EWSU 2004a, page 39). Climate is humid subtropical ([[org.xwiki.gwt.dom.client.Element#placeholder'>Köppen classification>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification]] Cfa). Flooding sometimes affects some settlements, but is not a severe problem. Industrial activity is extensive and diverse. There is significant agricultural activity within the metropolitan area, which includes low-density semi-rural districts (Smith et al. 2005). A significant proportion of the population lives in low-income townships, including informal settlements.
== Water resources and supply: overview ==
Water comes mainly from dammed rivers (Durban Metro 2000). According to the 2007 national census (SSA 2007), about 78% of households have in-plot piped water, 19% piped water from a public standpipe, and 3% no access to piped water.
== Sanitation access ==
According to the 2007 national census (SSA 2007), about 65% of households have flush toilets connected to sewerage, about 4% have flush toilets connected a septic tank, about 10% have urine-diverting dry toilets, about 6% have improved (ventilated) pit latrines, while the remaining 15% have inadequate sanitation on the JMP definition (mostly unimproved pit latrines, though some bucket latrines or no facilities). Durban is the only city in sub-Saharan Africa with a large number of urine-diverting dry toilets, mostly constructed with government subsidy in low-density semi-rural districts of the municipality (outside the urban agglomeration proper); we are not aware of any recent evaluation of the function of these toilets. Open defecation is uncommon. See also the Water Services Development Plan for the eThekwini Municipality (AOC 2008). A study of relationships between sanitation and health has been carried out by Esterhuizen (2008)
== Sewerage system ==
The densely populated central part of the Durban agglomeration has an extensive sewerage system. We do not currently have detailed information on this system. In 2006, Durban Metro Water Services received a Best Practices Award from UN-Habitat, for a programme to educate people about use of the sewerage system, with the aim of reducing blockages (see http:~/~/www.bestpractices.org/bpbriefs/watesan.html).
== Septage management (septage ~= nightsoil and/or sludge from onsite facilities) ==
eThekweni has implemented innovative and very interesting faecal sludge management systems. Pit-emptying teams are contracted by the municipality, and supplied with proper equipment (e.g. gloves, long-handled shovels) and with a sludge collection infrastructure network (locally sited containers, which are collected regularly by the municipality). The municipality has committed to emptying every pit latrine once every 5 years, free of charge. For more details, see EWSU (2004a) and Eales (2005); we do not have up-to-date information on how this system is working.
== Sewage treatment (sewage ~= sewered wastes and/or septage) ==
Extensive facilities: see EWSU (2004b).
== Sanitation in low-income districts ==
The Water Services Development Plan (EWSU 2004a) estimates a total of 116,000 households in informal settlements, of which 18,000 have improved pit latrines (VIPs).
== Responsibility ==
Primary responsibility for sanitation lies with the eThekwini Water and Sanitation Unit of eThekwini Municipality, which assumes responsibility for both sewerage and onsite sanitation.
== Sanitation masterplan? ==
Yes: the Water Services Development Plan for the eThekwini Municipality (EWSU 2004a), as required under the national Water Services Act (1997). See also the Integrated Development Plan and the Long Term Development Framework (http:~/~/www.durban.gov.za/durban/government/policy/idp).
== Sanitation financing ==
Detailed information on the costs of different sanitation solutions is given in EWSU (2004a)
== Major investments and donor interventions ==
South Africa, classified by the World Bank as an upper middle income country, receives relatively little funding from international donors.
== Sources and further reading ==
Extensive documentation is available from the eThekwini Municipality Water and Sanitation Home Page: http:~/~/www.durban.gov.za/durban/services/water_and_sanitation
== References ==
Durban Metro (2000) Freshwater resources. http:~/~/www.ceroi.net/reports/durban/issues/fshwater/index.htm
Eales K (2005) “Sanitation Partnerships Series: Bringing pit emptying out of the darkness: A comparison of approaches in Durban, South Africa, and Kibera, Kenya”. BPD Sanitation Partnerships Series, BPD [Building Partnerships for Development]. http:~/~/www.bpdws.org/bpd/web/d/doc_131.pdf?statsHandlerDone=1 Brinkhoff T (2010) City Population. http:~/~/www.citypopulation.de
Esterhuizen TM (2008) Sanitation, water and hygiene in Ethekwini Municipality, Durban, South Africa: a cross-sectional study. Abstract presented at the 4th Public Health Association of South Africa Conference 2008. http:~/~/phasa2008.mrc.ac.za/abstract46.pdf
EWSU [eThekwini Water and Sanitation Unit] (2004a) Water Services Development Plan for the eThekwini Municipality. http:~/~/www.durban.gov.za/durban/services/water_and_sanitation/policies_and_guidelines/wsdp
EWSU (2004b) 1998 Wastewater Disposal Study Review and Wastewater Strategic Plan 2002. http:~/~/www.durban.gov.za/durban/services/water_and_sanitation/policies_and_guidelines/wsdp/1998StratPlanDoc.pdf
Hutton G, Haller L & Bartram J (2007) Economic and health effects of increasing coverage of low cost household drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to countries off-track to meet MDG target 10. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization. http:~/~/www.irc.nl/page/38443
Smith PM, Yusuf MJ, Bob U & de Neergaard A (2005) //Urban farming in the South Durban basin. //Urban Agriculture Magazine 15:16-18. http:~/~/www.ruaf.org/node/782
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[[2) ACCRA (Ghana) 3>>2) ACCRA (Ghana) 3]]
[[3) ADDIS ABABA (Ethiopia) 3>>3) ADDIS ABABA (Ethiopia) 3]]
[[4) ANTANANARIVO (Madagascar) 3>>4) ANTANANARIVO (Madagascar) 3]]
[[5) BAMAKO (Mali) 3>>5) BAMAKO (Mali) 3]]
[[6) BENIN CITY (Nigeria) 3>>6) BENIN CITY (Nigeria) 3]]
[[7) BRAZZAVILLE (Republic of Congo) 3>>7) BRAZZAVILLE (Republic of Congo) 3]]
[[8) CAPE TOWN (South Africa) 3>>8) CAPE TOWN (South Africa) 3]]
[[9) CONAKRY (Guinea) 3>>9) CONAKRY (Guinea) 3]]
[[10) COTONOU (Benin) 3>>10) COTONOU (Benin) 3]]
[[11) DAKAR (Senegal) 3>>11) DAKAR (Senegal) 3]]
[[12) DAR ES SALAAM (Tanzania) 3>>12) DAR ES SALAAM (Tanzania) 3]]
[[13) DOUALA (Cameroon) 3>>13) DOUALA (Cameroon) 3]]
[[14) DURBAN THEKWINI (South Africa) 3>>14) DURBAN THEKWINI (South Africa) 3]]
[[15) FREETOWN (Sierra Leone) 3>>15) FREETOWN (Sierra Leone) 3]]
[[16) HARARE (Zimbabwe) 3>>16) HARARE (Zimbabwe) 3]]
[[17) IBADAN (Nigeria) 3>>17) IBADAN (Nigeria) 3]]
[[18) JOHANNESBURG-EKURHULENI (South Africa) 3>>18) JOHANNESBURG-EKURHULENI (South Africa) 3]]
[[19) KADUNA (Nigeria) 3>>19) KADUNA (Nigeria) 3]]
[[20) KAMPALA (Uganda) 3>>20) KAMPALA (Uganda) 3]]
[[21) KANO (Nigeria) 3>>21) KANO (Nigeria) 3]]
[[22) KHARTOUM (Sudan) 3>>22) KHARTOUM (Sudan) 3]]
[[23) KINSHASA (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3>>23) KINSHASA (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3]]
[[24) KUMASI (Ghana) 3>>24) KUMASI (Ghana) 3]]
[[25) LAGOS (Nigeria) 3>>25) LAGOS (Nigeria) 3]]
[[26) LUANDA (Angola) 3>>26) LUANDA (Angola) 3]]
[[27) LUBUMBASHI (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3>>27) LUBUMBASHI (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3]]
[[28) LUSAKA (Zambia) 3>>28) LUSAKA (Zambia) 3]]
[[29) MAIDUGURI (Nigeria) 3>>29) MAIDUGURI (Nigeria) 3]]
[[30) MAPUTO (Mozambique) 3>>30) MAPUTO (Mozambique) 3]]
[[31) MBUJI-MAYI (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3>>31) MBUJI-MAYI (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) 3]]
[[32) MOGADISHU (Somalia) 3>>32) MOGADISHU (Somalia) 3]]
[[33) MONROVIA (Liberia) 3>>33) MONROVIA (Liberia) 3]]
[[34) NAIROBI (Kenya) 3>>34) NAIROBI (Kenya) 3]]
[[35) OUGADOUGOU (Burkina Faso) 3>>35) OUGADOUGOU (Burkina Faso) 3]]
[[36) PORT ELIZABETH (South Africa) 3>>36) PORT ELIZABETH (South Africa) 3]]
[[37) PORT HARCOURT (Nigeria) 3>>37) PORT HARCOURT (Nigeria) 3]]
[[38) PRETORIA TSHWANE (South Africa) 3>>38) PRETORIA TSHWANE (South Africa) 3]]
[[39) YAOUNDÉ (Cameroon) 3>>39) YAOUNDÉ (Cameroon) 3]]
[[40) ZARIA (Nigeria) 3>>40) ZARIA (Nigeria) 3]]
== Related Publications ==
[[Designing Wastewater Systems According to Local Conditions>>http://www.iwapublishing.com/template.cfm?name=isbn9781780404769_&type=category]] - David M Robbins
Publication Date: Jan 2014 - ISBN - 9781780404769
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